OP 2: Greenhouse Gas Emissions – version 2.2
Data Accuracy Video
Frequently Asked Questions
How has this credit changed from STARS 2.1 to 2.2?
Substantive changes have been made to this credit. It has been simplified by moving disaggregated GHG emissions reporting and points earned for conducting an inventory to the revamped Emissions Inventory and Disclosure credit. SIMAP and the Climate Registry are now recognized as GHG accounting tools. A comprehensive list of differences can be found in the 2.2 Summary of changes.
My institution uses SIMAP for its greenhouse gas emissions reporting. Are there any specific guidelines for SIMAP users?
AASHE has published a short guide that maps SIMAP data fields to STARS reporting fields.
Can renewable energy credits (RECs) be counted as carbon sinks or offsets?
Purchased RECs or Guarantees of Origin (GOs) may NOT be counted as carbon sinks or offsets. Only the following carbon sinks qualify:
- Third-party verified, purchased carbon offsets
- Institution-catalyzed carbon offsets (popularly known as “local offsets”)
- Carbon storage from on-site composting.
Note: GHG emissions data should not be adjusted manually to account for carbon sinks, since this is done automatically in the Reporting Tool.
Why aren’t RECs counted as carbon offsets?
While both offsets and RECs can help an institution lower its emissions footprint, they are different instruments used for different purposes:
- Offsets are used to address direct and indirect GHG emissions by verifying global emissions reductions at additional, external projects. Offsets (verified emissions reductions) are subtracted from an institution’s gross emissions to determine net emissions.
- RECs are used to address indirect GHG emissions associated with purchased electricity (scope 2 emissions) by verifying use of zero- or low-emissions renewable source of electricity. RECs (MWh of renewable energy) are used in the calculation of gross, market-based scope 2 emissions. Unlike offsets, they are not subtracted from gross emissions.
Please also note that GHG emissions data should not be adjusted manually based on benefits of carbon offsets, since this is included in the credit calculation.
Does material that is transported off-campus for composting count as a carbon sink?
To avoid double-counting, the compost may be produced off-site, but must originate from on-site materials and be returned to the campus for use as a soil amendment.
Does carbon sequestration qualify as a sink or offset?
While v2.1 recognized sequestration as an offset without conditions, consistent with SIMAP and relevant protocols from The Offset Network, v2.2 does not.
A sequestration project may qualify as an institution-catalyzed carbon offset if it has been certified/verified or quantified using a method that addresses all of the accounting issues listed in the Technical Manual (including demonstration of additionality).
Non-additional sequestration may be reported for transparency purposes in the optional reporting field provided in v2.2.
What information is required when reporting carbon sinks?
If reporting carbon sinks and offsets, your descriptive response should include the vendor, project source, verification program, and contract timeframes and should support all areas where a number above 0 is entered.
Are there other credits that ask for the same information?
Please check to see if:
- The weighted campus user (WCU) figures reported in this credit are consistent with Academics and Demographics (IC 3/PRE 5). Valid discrepancies should be clarified in the Notes field (for instance, if a different performance year or data source was used).
- The gross floor area and energy intensive space reported in this credit are consistent with Operational Characteristics (IC 2/PRE 4). Valid discrepancies should be clarified in the Notes field (for instance, if a different performance year or data source was used).
- See related Help Center article on sharing information between credits.
Resources, Templates & Tools
- SIMAP® – A simple, comprehensive, and affordable online tool for measuring, calculating, and reporting carbon and nitrogen footprints.
- GHG Emissions Calculation Tool – A free, Excel-based tool from Greenhouse Gas Protocol and WRI.
- Greenhouse Gas Protocol Corporate Standard and Calculation Tools – World Resources Institute (WRI)
- The Climate Registry
- Getting Started Guide: How to Source Green-e® Certified Carbon Offsets (Center for Resource Solutions)
- GHG Protocol for Project Accounting (World Resources Institute)
- Land Use, Land Change and Forestry (IPCC)
- Forest Project Protocol (Climate Action Reserve)
- Framework for Forest Management Offset Protocols (Canadian Council of Forest Ministers)
- Compliance Offset Protocols (COP)
- The Offset Network
- British Columbia Institute of Technology – Comprehensive responses and documentation. Good reporting example for British Columbia institutions participating in the BC carbon neutrality protocol.
- Cornell University – Comprehensive responses and documentation. Notes field includes detail on history, recent updates, and COVID-19 impacts.
- Nova Scotia Community College – Submission provides a detailed description of the institution’s GHG emissions reduction initiatives and includes emissions calculation methodology in the notes section.
- Ohio University – A significant reduction in Gross Scope 2 GHG emissions from imported electricity between baseline year and performance year is clarified under the field, “A brief description of the institution’s GHG emissions reduction initiatives”.
- Portland Community College – Comprehensive responses and documentation. The Notes field includes a good explanation for a drop in emissions.
- Susquehanna University – Good example of how a data outlier is explained in the descriptive fields (The campus steam plant switched over from coal to natural gas).
- University of Tasmania – Response includes a description of verified Australian carbon offsets and includes emissions calculation methodology in the notes section. Good reporting example for Australasian institutions.
- University of Victoria – Submission includes a description of verification for Canadian offset projects as well as details on emissions reduction initiatives. Good reporting example for British Columbia institutions participating in the BC carbon neutrality protocol.
- University of Waterloo – Notes field clarifies how COVID-19 disruptions resulted in valid discrepancies in weighted campus user figures between OP 2 and PRE 5.
- University of Queensland – Good example of note clarifying why WCU figures differ from PRE 4 and 5. Good reporting example for Australasian institutions.
Common Issues Identified During Review
- Score outlier: Uncommon for institutions to earn 6 out of 8 points or above. If a high score is reported, check closely for the issues below. Exemplary performance can be clarified in the descriptive fields.
- Comparative outlier: Gross Scope 1 and Scope 2 GHG emissions between Performance Year and Baseline Year. Any significant outliers that are valid should be clarified in the descriptive fields or Notes section.
- Numeric outliers: Response of zero (or other very low response) under either Gross Scope 1 GHG emissions from stationary combustion or Gross Scope 2 GHG emissions from purchased electricity is uncommon. A zero response for purchased electricity may qualify if institutions purchase RECs to cover 100 percent of purchased electricity. Any valid outliers or exemplary performance should be clarified in the descriptive fields or Notes section.
- Carbon Sinks – Response under “A brief description of the offsets in each category reported above, including vendor, project source, verification program and contract timeframes” should include the necessary detail and support all areas where a number above 0 is entered.
- Data consistency: Weighted campus user (WCU) figures should be consistent across PRE 5 and OP 2 if the same performance year is used. Valid discrepancies should be clarified under the Notes field.
- Data consistency: Gross floor area and energy intensive building space should be consistent across PRE 4 and OP 2 if the same or similar performance year is used. Valid discrepancies should be clarified under the Notes field.