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  • AASHE-STARS

The Sustainability Tracking, Assessment & Rating System™ (STARS) is a transparent, self-reporting framework for colleges and universities to measure their sustainability performance.

Overall Rating Silver
Overall Score 56.88
Liaison Dedee DeLongpre Johnston
Submission Date June 3, 2015
Executive Letter Download

STARS v2.0

Wake Forest University
OP-3: Building Operations and Maintenance

Status Score Responsible Party
Complete 0.30 / 4.00 Mike Draughn
Director, Maintenance and Utilities Services
Facilities & Campus Services
"---" indicates that no data was submitted for this field

Does the institution have any building space certified under the following green building rating systems for existing buildings?:
Yes or No
LEED for Existing Buildings or another 4-tier rating system used by an Established Green Building Council (GBC) No
The DGNB system, Green Star Performance, or another 3-tier GBC rating system No
BREEAM-In Use, CASBEE for Existing Building, or another 5-tier GBC rating system No
Other non-GBC rating systems (e.g. BOMA BESt, Green Globes) No

A brief description of the green building rating system(s) used and/or a list or sample of certified buildings and ratings:
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Total floor area of eligible building space (operations and maintenance):
4,857,790 Square Feet

Floor area of building space that is certified at each level under a 4-tier rating system for existing buildings used by an Established Green Building Council::
Certified Floor Area
Minimum Level (e.g. LEED Certified) 0 Square Feet
3rd Highest Level (e.g. LEED Silver) ---
2nd Highest Level (e.g. LEED Gold) ---
Highest Achievable Level (e.g. LEED Platinum) 0 Square Feet

Floor area of building space that is certified at each level under a 3-tier rating system for existing buildings used by an Established Green Building Council::
Certified Floor Area
Minimum Level 0 Square Feet
Mid-Level 0 Square Feet
Highest Achievable Level 0 Square Feet

Floor area of building space that is certified at each level under a 5-tier rating system for existing buildings used by an Established Green Building Council::
Certified Floor Area
Minimum Level 0 Square Feet
4th Highest Level 0 Square Feet
Mid-Level 0 Square Feet
2nd Highest Level 0 Square Feet
Highest Achievable Level 0 Square Feet

Floor area of building space that is certified at any level under other green building rating systems for existing buildings:
0 Square Feet

Floor area of building space that is maintained in accordance with formally adopted sustainable building operations and maintenance guidelines or policies, but NOT certified:
971,558 Square Feet

A copy of the sustainable building operations and maintenance guidelines or policies:
The date the guidelines or policies were formally adopted:
Jan. 28, 2011

A brief description of the sustainable building operations and maintenance program and/or a list or sample of buildings covered:

Wake Forest University’s guiding principle for sustainability in the built environment directs us to construct, renovate, and operate the built environment with high standards of efficiency in energy, water, and materials intensity in a way that minimizes impacts on local ecosystems and supports human wellbeing.

In addition to our goal of designing all new construction to minimum LEED-Silver standards, we are also committed to ongoing resource efficiency improvements in existing buildings. The Facilities & Campus Services division prioritizes buildings and building systems based on a master Facilities Condition Assessment which has been completed at the individual building and system levels. The Maintenance and Utilities department analyzes the data and relates it to use, criticality, future renewal, and energy intensity to determine which systems and/or utilities are viable candidates for capital resources. These dollars, along with available operating funds and occasional utility dollars, are allocated to beneficial energy and sustainability projects.

When possible, buildings are retro-commissioned to ensure that they are performing as designed. Buildings that were designed and built in the 1950’s, like most on the Wake Forest campus, were not designed to meet even the basic performance standards required of new construction today. A re-commissioning process, therefore, helps inform the possibilities for improvements and replacements of building systems.

Improvements in the operation and maintenance of these buildings are sometimes the most effective use of resources. Sustainable practices in the following areas decrease the environmental footprint of each building, and our campus as a whole, while decreasing operational costs over time and increasing the health and wellbeing of building occupants.

Resource Conservation Measures in the Built Environment have included:
A. Impacts on the surrounding site:
Alternative transportation programs including ridesharing and campus shuttles
Tree Care Policy
B. Energy consumption:
Maintenance practices, including installation of energy efficient lighting and lighting controls
Implementation of set operating hours
Temperature setbacks during regular unoccupied periods
Winter Break setback program – to 55 degrees
C. Renewal investments where feasible, e.g.:
Chemistry Department – demand-based ventilation, heat reclamation, and updated controls
Biology Building – air handling unit replacements to renew systems, upgrade controls, and improve efficiency & comfort
Library – Air Handling Units replacement s in multiple phases.
Retro-commissioning - pilot program
Upgrades to building automation system (BAS) & preventive maintenance (PM) programs
Electrical, Chilled Water and Steam sub-metering
Steam plant Capacity, efficiency & controls upgrades
D. Usage of environmentally preferable materials:
Improved procurement policies
Certified environmentally preferred cleaning supplies
E. Indoor environmental quality:
Indoor air quality (IAQ) sampling for troublesome areas performed internally through an Aircuity air monitoring instrument to provide thorough IAQ analysis and reporting capabilities
Campus-wide smoke-free policy
F. Water consumption:
Water sub-metering program
Standards for reduced flow fixtures set for new buildings and modernizations
Cooling tower water management via conductivity meters


A brief description of how the institution ensures compliance with sustainable building operation and maintenance guidelines and policies:

Wake Forest University has continued to expand its efforts to improve performance in operations and maintenance of existing buildings. We have not pursued LEED-EBOM certification of any buildings at this time; however, several campus-wide and building-specific programs addressed in LEED-EBOM are complete or in various stages of completion.

Campus-wide Initiatives include:

Sustainable sites:
Zipcar car sharing program
New bike racks
Expanded shuttle routes
Tree care policy
Materials & Resources
Improved procurement policies
Waste Reduction & Recycling position created
Green cleaning chemicals
Indoor Environmental Quality
IAQ sampling for troublesome areas can be done internally through an Aircuity air monitoring instrument to provide thorough IAQ analysis and reporting capabilities
Campus Smoke Free Policy was recently implemented

Building Level Initiatives Include:
Water Efficiency – From our efforts listed below, the university has realized greater than 15% reduction from the baseline year to FY 14.
• We have sub-metered electricity and water in nearly all of our primary buildings, and have added chilled water & steam sub-meters in new buildings and certain existing ones.
• Standards for reduced flow fixtures have been set for new buildings and modernizations: ½ gpm faucets, 1/8 gpf urinals, dual flush toilets, and 1.5 gpm showerheads: (From our standards and the efforts listed below, the university has realized greater than 25% reduction in water consumption in each of the buildings upgraded.
• Showerheads have been changed out in all residence halls to low-flow fixtures.
• Other fixture upgrades are complete in all of the residence halls and 20% of overall space.
• One Pass Process water has been diverted to plant loops or dedicated chillers.
• Cooling Tower Water Management – Chiller Plants have been upgraded with conductivity meters to automate bleed control.
Energy and Atmosphere - From our efforts listed below, the university main campus has realized greater than 3% reduction in energy consumption from the baseline year to FY 2014 in spite of a >20% add in space.
Maintenance Practices – where feasible, incandescent bulbs have been replaced with CFLs. CRLs are standard replacement bulbs as incandescences burn out.
Operating hours have been instituted in our academic and administrative buildings with temperature setbacks occurring during unoccupied periods.
An aggressive winter break setback program was instituted to reduce setpoints to 55 degrees over the extended winter break period.

Renewal Dollars & Energy Programs
• Chemistry – Demand-based Ventilation, Heat Reclaim, and updated controls were installed during the renewal of the laboratory exhaust and make-up airs systems.
• Multi-phase Winston Hall (Biology) AHU replacements have renewed mechanical systems, upgraded controls, and improved efficiency as well as comfort for the occupants.
• Upgrades to our Building Automation System and Preventive Maintenance Programs have provided better tools for our technicians and improved the reliability and comfort of our systems.
• Steam Plant improvements have increased plant efficiency >3% and added capacity, and redundancy


The website URL where information about the institution’s certified buildings and/or sustainable operations and maintenance guidelines or policies is available:
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The information presented here is self-reported. While AASHE staff review portions of all STARS reports and institutions are welcome to seek additional forms of review, the data in STARS reports are not verified by AASHE. If you believe any of this information is erroneous or inconsistent with credit criteria, please review the process for inquiring about the information reported by an institution and complete the Data Inquiry Form.