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The Sustainability Tracking, Assessment & Rating System™ (STARS) is a transparent, self-reporting framework for colleges and universities to measure their sustainability performance.

Overall Rating Silver
Overall Score 56.88
Liaison Dedee DeLongpre Johnston
Submission Date June 3, 2015
Executive Letter Download

STARS v2.0

Wake Forest University
OP-8: Building Energy Consumption

Status Score Responsible Party
Complete 2.00 / 6.00 Mike Draughn
Director, Maintenance and Utilities Services
Facilities & Campus Services
"---" indicates that no data was submitted for this field

Total building energy consumption, all sources (transportation fuels excluded):
Performance Year Baseline Year
Total building energy consumption 631,238 MMBtu 652,398 MMBtu

Purchased electricity and steam:
Performance Year Baseline Year
Grid-purchased electricity 284,239 MMBtu 285,668 MMBtu
District steam/hot water 0 MMBtu 0 MMBtu

Gross floor area of building space::
Performance Year Baseline Year
Gross floor area 4,857,790 Gross Square Feet 3,854,426 Gross Square Feet

Floor area of energy intensive space, performance year::
Floor Area
Laboratory space 108,161 Square Feet
Healthcare space 0 Square Feet
Other energy intensive space

Degree days, performance year (base 65 °F)::
Degree days (see help icon above)
Heating degree days 4,003
Cooling degree days 1,406

Source-site ratios::
Source-Site Ratio (see help icon above)
Grid-purchased electricity 3.14
District steam/hot water 1.20

Start and end dates of the performance year and baseline year (or 3-year periods)::
Start Date End Date
Performance Year July 1, 2013 June 30, 2014
Baseline Year July 1, 2006 June 30, 2007

A brief description of when and why the building energy consumption baseline was adopted:

A baseline year of FY 07 was established with the original STARS submission based on availability of reliable historical data.

A brief description of any building temperature standards employed by the institution:

Most academic and administration buildings have time-of-day schedules in the building automation systems. The schedules allow the air handlers to run only as necessary to maintain the building temperature between 60 and 80 degrees during unoccupied periods. During the holiday setback, most buildings are allowed to float between 55 degF and 85 degF.

In addition, for rooms without timers in Residence Halls that close over winter break, we manually set back each area for the extended break -- usually 3 - 4 weeks.

A brief description of any light emitting diode (LED) lighting employed by the institution:

Approximately 25% of outdoor and street lights have been converted to LED. Programs are in place to convert the remaining areas to LED in the near future. Additionally, they have been installed in hard to access or specialty applications in the four new buildings brought online in 2013. They have been installed in our library atrium and several small test areas around campus. LED's are our design standard for new construction and are being used as the primary lighting source in the five renovation and new construction projects underway.

A brief description of any occupancy and/or vacancy sensors employed by the institution:

The university uses motion sensors in some classrooms, especially those in which we recently upgraded the lighting. The majority of the renovated restrooms, library stacks, and most office spaces use occupancy sensors as well. Some residence hall common spaces (i.e Martin, Polo, and others) also use occupancy sensors. The vast majority of the outdoor lighting systems on campus use photoeye or timer controls. Recently constructed buildings (Farrell Hall, Magnolia Residence Hall, Dogwood Residence Hall, North Food Service) use occupancy sensors throughout the buildings. Farrell Hall uses occupancy sensors in conjunction with O2 sensors to control the VAV systems and the displacement ventilation system in the classrooms and large public areas.

A brief description of any passive solar heating employed by the institution:

The South Residence Hall domestic water heating is provided with steam to water heat exchangers with 500 gallons or storage capacity. Forty (40) flat plate solar thermal panels provide domestic hot water to reduce the steam load; the system employs four (4) 650 gallon storage tanks. Domestic hot water is heated to 140F and a thermostatic mixing valve blends city water to reduce the building hot water temperature to 120F. The system supplies approximately 60% of the domestic hot water to the building.

A brief description of any ground-source heat pumps employed by the institution:

A brief description of any cogeneration technologies employed by the institution:

A brief description of any building recommissioning or retrofit program employed by the institution:

Retro-commissioning and repairs/corrections have been made on Alumni Hall, Benson Hall, Tribble Hall, Reynolda Hall, Reynolds Library, Worrell and the Scales Fine Art Building.

A brief description of any energy metering and management systems employed by the institution:

The university is using Lucid Systems as a gateway for energy consumption and performance. It was fully implemented in the fall of 2011. A Nexxus system gathers electricity and water sub-metering data for buildings on campus. Our BMS systems are used to capture steam and chilled water sub-metering for our new buildings and for existing buildings where they have been added. All systems pass data to Lucid for a public facing portal.

A brief description of the institution's program to replace energy-consuming appliances, equipment and systems with high efficiency alternatives:

A brief description of any energy-efficient landscape design initiatives employed by the institution:

A brief description of any vending machine sensors, lightless machines, or LED-lit machines employed by the institution:

Wake Forest has worked with the vending contractors to remove lights from the vending machines where ambient lighting is sufficient to illuminate the products in the machines.

A brief description of other energy conservation and efficiency initiatives employed by the institution:

During recent projects and construction, the following measures have been implemented: variable flow chilled water system, variable flow hot water systems, solar PV canopy (North Dining), displacement ventilation in kitchen hoods, Energy Star appliances, solar window film, energy recovery AHU's, N-lite lighting controls, solar PV panels (Reynolda Gardens), pumps converted to VFD's, LEDs, low-flow plumbing fixtures on showers, aerators and flush valves, new fire tube boiler for colder months (85.5% eff).

The website URL where information about the institution’s energy conservation and efficiency initiatives is available:

The baseline year is 2006/07. Calculations above do not take into account visitors, guests, or tenants in per capita consumption figures.

The information presented here is self-reported. While AASHE staff review portions of all STARS reports and institutions are welcome to seek additional forms of review, the data in STARS reports are not verified by AASHE. If you believe any of this information is erroneous or inconsistent with credit criteria, please review the process for inquiring about the information reported by an institution and complete the Data Inquiry Form.